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Suppose that you are one of those select people who do not like the name CAR. Well, we are going to define a function called FIRST which does exactly the same thing as CAR. Let's go into Lisp.
:(DEFINE (FIRST (LAMBDA (L) : (CAR L))))) FIRST :(FIRST '(THIS HAD BETTER WORK)) THIS :(FIRST '(LONG LIVE DEFINE)) LONGThe explanation: We used the function DEFINE to set up our FIRST function. DEFINE takes as its argument a list containing the function definition. Note that we took more than one line to enter the function definition. This will generally be the case. Lisp will wait to see a matched set of parentheses. If you are not careful with the parentheses, you may have to do a lot of retyping. We can't explain everything about the form of the function definition at this point in the book. Suffice it to say that you must enter your functions in the above form. The first element in the function definition list is the name of the function you are defining, in this case, FIRST. The names that may be used for a function are the same as those for an alphabetic atom name.
The next thing in the function definition is a list whose first element is LAMBDA. Let's skip over the LAMBDA for the moment. Following the LAMBDA is a list of formal arguments for your function. In our example, this is the list: "(L)". We have to make explicit to Lisp the number of arguments our function will have. We have already seen Lisp functions which take one, two, or sometimes an indefinite number of arguments. If our list had been (L1 L2) then we would be defining a function with a function to behave like CAR, which has only one argument. After the list of arguments comes an expression whose value will be returned as the value of the function. In this case we want a CAR to be the result. Note that we use the formal arguments in this expression. This will be explained in more detail later.
The value of the Lisp function DEFINE is the name of the function being defined.
Note that we called the list a list of formal arguments. What are formal arguments? Well, we would like to be able to enter an expression like the following:
X is some pre-defined list. The name we use in the argument list in the function definition will, when the above expression is evaluated, take on the value of the list X. The name we use in our function, however, only serves as a place holder for the value of the actual argument. Note that here the actual argument is X. The formal argument, which in the FIRST definition is L, takes on the value of the actual argument when FIRST is evaluated. Be careful here, because the value of L will revert to whatever value [or lack thereof] it had previously, after the function had been evaluated.
: :(FIRST '(A LUCKY STAR)) A :L ** ERROR: UNDEFINED ATOM ** EVAL :: L +() NILWe know that L had a value inside the function, because the function executed correctly. Once the function finishes, L goes away. Poof!
Let's try our hand at another function definition.
:(DEFINE (SECOND (LAMBDA (ALIST) : (CAR (CDR ALIST)))))) SECOND :(SECOND '(CAN YOU SAY THE WORD FUN)) YOU :ALIST ** ERROR: UNDEFINED ATOM ** EVAL :: ALIST +() NILThis dialogue shows the same characteristic behavior of formal arguments: they clean up after themselves. That is, once the function has been terminated, the values of the formal arguments are no longer available.
Now, let's deal with functions with two arguments. Let's define our own EQUAL function.
:(DEFINE (SAME (LAMBDA (LIST1 LIST2) : (EQUAL LIST1 LIST2))))))) SAME :(SAME '(TESTING) 'TESTING) NIL :(SAME '(EQUAL) LIST2) ** ERROR: UNDEFINED ATOM ** EVAL :: LIST2 +() NIL :(SETQ LIST2 '(INVISIBLE)) (INVISIBLE ) :(SAME 'CLONE 'CLONE) T :LIST2 (INVISIBLE )Note that not only can't we get to the formal arguments after the function is finished, but if we have another object with the same name as a formal argument then that variable keeps its value even though the formal argument had a different value! That is both very important and very confusing. You may want to re-read this explanation and then try some of your own examples so that you develop a "feel" for the operation of the formal arguments.
Suppose we want a function that will return the last element of a list, sort of the opposite of CAR. Well, first we will need a Lisp function called REVERSE.
REVERSE will return a list with all of its top-level elements reversed. Let's make sure REVERSE works.
:(REVERSE '(P L E H)) (H E L P ) :(REVERSE '(S D R A W K C A B)) (B A C K W A R D S ) :(REVERSE '((A B) C D (E F)))) ((E F ) D C (A B ) )Now we get to our function: LAST. How do we go about getting the last element of a list? Well, now that we know about REVERSE, we can reverse the list, and then take the CAR. Let's try it.
:(DEFINE (LAST (LAMBDA (ZZZ) : (CAR (REVERSE ZZZ))))) LAST :(LAST '(NOW IS THE TIME)) TIMEBy this time you might be able to say to yourself, "So what?" Why bother defining a trivial function like LAST when you could just type out "(car (reverse . . .))"? The answer to this is two-fold. First, the functions that you define won't be so trivial later on. The work done in a single function is almost unlimited. We are just using simple examples at this point.
The second reason for learning how to define simplistic functions is more subtle. Remember that we mentioned the NOT function in chapter 5? It did exactly the same things as NULL. In fact we might have defined NOT [if it were not already there] by typing:
:(DEFINE (NOT (LAMBDA (A) : (NULL A))))) NOTThe reason for having both NULL and NOT is that in some cases it makes more sense to the programmer to envision a NOT than a NULL. Go back over the example in Chapter 5 and you'll see this vividly.
As with NOT and NULL, suppose that we were using a list to hold the names of our friends in the form:
(firstname middlename lastname)
We could then define functions called FIRSTNAME, MIDDLENAME, and LASTNAME to access the parts of the list. They would represent CAR, CADR, and CADDR respectively. It makes more sense to ask for "(middlename friend)" than it does to ask for "(cadr friend)".
Using simple defined functions in this way helps us to organize our own thoughts when designing a program and also helps others when they try to read out work. Applying meaningful names to simple things is one very important use of DEFINE.
(NAME (FIRST PHONELIST))
(NUMBER (FIRST PHONELIST)) etc.
(DEFINE (FIRST (LAMBDA (L) (CAR L)))) (DEFINE (SECOND (LAMBDA (L) (CADR L)))) (DEFINE (THIRD (LAMBDA (L) (CADDR L))))
(DEFINE (NAME (LAMBDA (L) (CAR L)))) (DEFINE (NUMBER (LAMBDA (L) (CADR L))))
(CONS (THIRD L) (CONS (SECOND L) (CONS (FIRST L) '() )))An expression to reverse the list and each entry is:
(CONS (CONS (NUMBER (THIRD L)) (CONS (NAME (THIRD L)) '())) (CONS (CONS (NUMBER (SECOND L)) (CONS (NAME (SECOND L)) '())) (CONS (CONS (NUMBER (FIRST L)) (CONS (NAME (FIRST L)) '())) '())) ) )
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